The reproductive health of a man is vital for her overall well-being. From puberty to menopause, there are intense hormonal changes to the female external and internal reproductive organs. Many women suffer from reproductive health issues, which can affect their energy levels, mental health, fertility, and moods. When it comes to reproductive health, it is often difficult to figure out what is normal and abnormal because, for many women, topics about reproductive health are still taboo. Learning about these common concerns can help you talk to your doctor about possible solutions.


When a woman has endometriosis, endometrial tissues that are supposed to line the uterus grow outside the uterus. The condition can begin at the start of the first menstrual period and last until menopause. Endometrial tissues can affect reproductive organs such as the abdominal cavities, bladder, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and rectum. During every period, the endometrial tissue thickens, breaks down, and bleeds. Because the endometrial tissue is outside the uterus, the blood cannot leave the body. The trapped blood can cause swelling and pain. Further, the endometrial tissue gathers in the pelvic area leading to inflammation, pelvic pain, and other painful symptoms.

Some women may have endometriosis and have no symptoms. If you have been diagnosed with endometriosis, your symptoms may include:

  • Abnormal periods
  • Excessively heavy & painful periods
  • Lower back or pelvic pain
  • Infertility
  • Digestive issues (constipation, diarrhea, nausea)
  • Formation of scars
  • Mood swings
  • Painful sex
  • Rectal pain
  • Irritation


Many couples can conceive within three months or a year of trying to get pregnant. Unfortunately, many may struggle to get pregnant due to infertility - a condition that makes it harder to get pregnant without help or not at all. Doctors often diagnose women with infertility when they have not gotten pregnant after trying for a year. Infertility may be due to hormonal issues, problems with the cervix or uterus, vaginal infections, or issues with releasing eggs. Early treatment for common reproductive conditions can decrease the likelihood of infertility.

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Gynecologic cancer is any cancer that starts in a woman's reproductive organs. These cancers can affect her ability to have periods, get pregnant, and regulate her hormones. There are many types of gynecologic cancers, such as:

  • Ovarian cancer
  • Cervical cancer
  • Vulva cancer
  • Uterine cancer
  • Vaginal cancer

If you are diagnosed with any gynecologic cancer, it is important to get treatment as soon as possible. The earlier you start treatment, the likelier you are to beat the cancer and stay healthy. 

Uterine Fibroids

Uterine fibroids are non-cancerous benign tumors that develop in the uterus. When the fibroids are not getting enough blood, they start to die and hurt. 8 out of 10 women will have fibroids during their lifetime. While some women with fibroids are asymptomatic, those who are symptomatic tend to have painful menstrual periods, and backaches and may require medical treatment.

Other uterine fibroids symptoms often include:

  • Heavy menstrual bleeding
  • Bleeding outside of periods
  • Menstrual periods that last for more than a week
  • Pelvic pain or pressure
  • Backache
  • Frequent urination or difficulty urinating
  • Leg pains
  • Reproductive issues (miscarriages, infertility)
  • Painful sex

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is one of the most common reproductive health issues and affects about 1 in 10 females of childbearing age. PCOS occurs when the ovaries produce more male hormones than is considered normal. Many people with PCOS find their symptoms normal. Symptoms often begin in puberty but may go unnoticed for a long time or be attributed to other sources (if there are other health issues present).

PCOS gravely affects metabolism and hormone regulation causing higher rates of infertility and menstrual irregularities. 

Common Symptoms of PCOS include:

  • Irregular or missed periods
  • Infertility
  • Pelvic pain
  • Hirsutism (excessive hair growth on the stomach, face, toes, chest, etc.)
  • Male pattern baldness
  • Matches of darkly pigmented skin
  • Oily skin, acne, and dandruff
  • Unexpected weight gain 
  • Poor sleep
  • Tiredness
  • Mood swings
  • Headaches

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are infections that can pass from one person to another through unprotected sex with an infected person. STDs can affect all sexes and genders. Sexually transmitted diseases are usually caused by bacteria or viruses. Examples of sexually transmitted diseases include:

  • Gonorrhea
  • Syphilis
  • Chlamydia
  • HPV
  • Herpes

To protect yourself against sexually transmitted diseases, you should always get tested before any new partner and after having sex with each new partner (s). You should take precautions such as having protected sex by wearing condoms or other barrier methods. You should go to the doctor for evaluations if you are having symptoms of any STDs, such as genital sores, or unusual discharge. 

If left untreated, STDs can cause women to be infertile, have infections, and even die.Early treatment can be the difference between living and dying. Remember that many affected people may not have any symptoms of an STD, but their overall health is being affected. Do not delay treatment, and get tested regularly!

Interstitial Cystitis (IC)

Interstitial Cystitis (IC) or bladder pain syndrome causes chronic pelvic pain, extreme bladder pain, and frequent urges to urinate with an empty bladder. Interstitial Cystitis makes the bladder walls swollen and irritated. It also stiffens the bladder and forms scars. 

Other symptoms of IC include:

  • Pelvic discomfort & pain
  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • Pressure in the bladder or the abdomen
  • Chronic abdominal pain
February 21, 2024

This article is for informational purposes only. It is not, nor is it intended to be, a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment and should never be relied upon for specific medical advice.